Shoulder instability can be a painful condition.
What is it?
Shoulder instability is a term used to describe a weakness in the structures of the shoulder that keep the joint stable, this can lead to frequent dislocations. As one of the most flexible joints in the body, the shoulder maintains stability through a balance of support between the dynamic structures (muscles and tendons) and static structures (ligaments and joint shape).
Shoulder instability typically occurs in one of two directions, anterior (forward) or posterior (backwards), anterior instability or dislocations are far more common than posterior.
What are the symptoms?
The most noticeable symptom of this condition is dislocation or subluxation of the joint. This is often accompanied by pain, clicking sensations, a feeling of instability and in some cases, weakness, tingling, and pins and needles in the arm. Many patients report a feeling of apprehension or instability, as if ‘something is not quite right’. Posterior instability can also cause reduced range of movement and might mimic other common shoulder conditions, which need to be ruled out first.
How does it happen?
Shoulder instability is also classified as traumatic, occurring after an injury or atraumatic, where the shoulder is exceptionally flexible and prone to dislocations from everyday forces. Instability can also occur from chronic overuse where the shoulder joint is damaged slowly over time.
Traumatic shoulder instability is the most common form. The joint can be dislocated by a strong force and damaged, which leaves the joint more unstable and vulnerable to future dislocations. Sports with a high frequency of shoulder dislocations include rugby and football (soccer and AFL). Dislocations can also occur in the general public from something as simple as falling onto an outstretched hand.
Check out these simple shoulder exercises you can do at home.